Major Cyclone in Bay of Bengal that occured from 2000 to 2020

Cyclone in the Bay of Bengal: Tropical cyclone (TC) generally formed over the tropical oceans with intense low-pressure with the large-scale wind flow. These TC become more catastrophic when they occur in high tide time.

The Bay of Bengal is situated in the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean between 5° N to 22°N and 80° E to 100° E is considered as a tropical sea. Due to its tropical position and funnel-shaped geographic settings, it is considered as fertile land for the strongest TCs. Particularly, the countries located in the northern coast of the Bay of Bengal (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, etc.) are more vulnerable to extreme events like cyclones or storm surges.

In this article, you will able to know about the TCs formed over the BoB from 2000 to 2020. We will discuss the major cyclone, their track, intensity, damages and many important pieces of information.

 

Bay-of-Bengal-map

Bay-of-Bengal-map

 

Contents

Cyclone in Bay of Bengal In 1970

Cyclone Name: Cyclone Bhola, 1970

There was a cyclone in 1970, called Bhola. It was the deadliest and devastating tropical cyclone on record. It attacked East Pakistan (now known as Bangladesh) and India’s West Bengal on November 3, 1970. Most of the low-lying islands in the Ganges delta were flooded mainly due to the storm’s intensity. 

Formation time:

The cyclone, Bhola, formed on November 3, 1970, and dissipated on November 13, 1970. 

Atmospheric Condition:

Wind Speed: 

Highest winds speed were – 3-minute sustained: 185 km/h (115 mph) and 1-minute sustained: 240 km/h (150 mph) (give a reference)

Lowest pressure 

960 hPa ( 28.35 in Hg) (give a reference)

Track:

Firstly the cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8 and then traveled northward. The winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) reached its peak on November 11. On the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), it made landfall the following afternoon. The storm ripple devastated many of the offshore islands. It destroyed wiping out villages and also destroyed crops throughout the region. The cyclonic storm killed over 45% of the total population of 167,000 in the most severely affected Upazila, Tazumuddin.

Damage:

Fatalities were about ≥ 500,000 in total (give a reference), and Bhola damaged about $86.4 million (1970 USD). East Pakistan was affected due to the severe storm.

On 9–12 May 1975, this intense cyclone again attacked Cox’s Bazar and Khulna. The maximum wind speed of the hurricane was 96.5 to 112.6 km/h. The cyclonic storm killed about five people, and a few fishermen were missing. (Reference – Wikipedia.com )

Cyclone in Bay of Bengal In 2007

Cyclone Name: Cyclone Akash, 2007

Cyclone Akash, also known as Cyclonic Storm Akash, was the first-named tropical cyclone of the 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Like other disasters, this severe cyclone also attacked many areas and caused severe damage. The Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, and Burma were the affected areas due to this natural disaster.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Akash, formed on May 12, 2007, and dissipated on May 15, 2007.

Atmospheric Condition: 

Wind Speed

Highest winds were – 3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph) (Wikipedia)

1-minute sustained: 120 km/h (75 mph) 

Lowest pressure

988 hPa (mbar); 29.18 inHg 

Track: 

On May 12, the tropical cyclone first formed from an area that is of disturbed weather on the Bay of Bengal. Then the storm traveled northward gradually. When it reached peak 3-min sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph), it struck about 115 km (70 mi) south of Chittagong in Bangladesh. Akash swiftly weakened over land. Moreover, it discontinued advisories on May 15.

Damage:

The intense storm brought heavy rainfall to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Dozens of boats were missing due to the wind. Besides, three fishermen were confirmed killed, and another 50 were missing. The storm caused flooding and damaged thousands of houses. In Burma, the storm also caused some coastal flooding. The disaster killed around 14 people, and the damages calculated to US$982 million. (Reference – Wikipedia.com )

 

Cyclone in Bay of Bengal In 2007

Cyclone Name: Cyclone Sidr, 2007

cyclone Sidr

Cyclone Sidr

Cyclone Sidr was such a tropical cyclone, and researchers pointed it as one of the worst natural disasters in Bangladesh in 2007. It is also known as Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Sidr. It attacked Andaman Islands, Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Northeast India. The storm caused severe damage, which amounted to $2.31 billion. 

Formation time:

The cyclone Sidr formed on November 11, 2007, and dissipated on November 16, 2007.

Atmospheric Condition: 

Wind speed

Highest winds –

3-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph) (give a reference)

1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph) (give a reference)

Lowest pressure

944 hPa ; 27.88 inHg (give a reference)

Track:

Cyclone Sidr first formed in the central Bay of Bengal. It strengthened quickly to reach peak 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and to make it a Category-5 equivalent tropical cyclone on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. In Bangladesh, on November 15, 2007, the storm eventually made landfall by causing large-scale evacuations. 

Damage:

The storm caused severe damage, be it human lives or properties. The number of deaths amounted to be between 3,100 and 10,000 associated with the cyclone. Meanwhile, on November 18, according to the report of Red Crescent Society, the number of deaths was up to 15,000.

 

Cyclone In 2008

Cyclone name: Cyclone Rashmi, 2008

On October 25, 2008, there was a tropical cyclone named cyclone Rashmi. It was the seventh tropical cyclone of the 2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and the second cyclonic storm was cyclone Rashmi. The severe storm caused much notable damage in Bangladesh and India.

Formation time

Cyclone Rashmi formed on October 25, 2008. It dissipated on October 27, 2008.

Atmospheric Condition

Wind speed

Highest winds

3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

1-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

Lowest pressure – 984 hPa (mbar); 29.06 inHg

www.wikivisually.com )

Track

Cyclone Rashmi made landfall on the Bangladesh coast late on October 26 with wind speeds up to 85 km/hour. The U.S. Navy Joint Typhoon Warning Center reported that tropical storm Rashmi came ashore, bringing heavy rains and winds of 83 kilometers per hour (52 mph)

Damage

The impact on Bangladesh due to Rashmi was many. About 15 people were killed, and thousands of homes were also damaged. It also destroyed large areas of acres of crops. Fifty fishermen were missing, and 15 fishing trawlers capsized offshore.

In India, as incessant rains accompanied by winds hit the state of Meghalaya and five people were killed. The cyclone’s constant rainfall and winds caused flash floods in three districts of Assam – Kamrup, Sonitput, and inundated vast tracts of land besides rendering people homeless. ( www.wikipedia.org

 

Cyclone In 2009

Cyclone name: Cyclone Bijli, 2009

We all know about Cyclone Bijli, the first tropical cyclone to form during the 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. It stayed from April 19 to April 21. Cyclone Bijli attacked weakly in Bangladesh, and there were not so severe damages recorded except some houses and crop fields losses.

Formation time

Cyclone Bijli formed on April 14, 2009, and dissipated on April 17, 2009.

Track

Cyclone Bijli formed from an area of Low Pressure on April 14. RSMC New Delhi and the JTWC reported on the evening of April 15 that the system had intensified into a tropical storm. With the former naming it Bij However, before making landfall just south of Chittagong on the morning of April 17, the remnants of Bijli continued to weaken as they tracked across northern Myanmar.  

Atmospheric condition

Wind speed

Highest winds

3-minute sustained: 75 km/h (45 mph)

1-minute sustained: 95 km/h (60 mph)

Lowest pressure

996 hPa; 29.41 inHg 

Damage

The storm produced a little storm surge in Myanmar as it made landfall. However, before the storm dissipated, the remnants of Bijli produced torrential rains over the northern areas of the country.

The sea would be rough to the sea coast of Andhra Pradesh.

As Cyclone Bijli struck overnight, At least six people were killed, said a food and disaster management ministry official on Saturday.

While trees and electric poles were toppled, snapping power supplies from Friday evening, a few thousand houses collapsed in Bandarban. 

Cyclone In 2009

Cyclone Name: Cyclone Aila 2009

Cyclone Aila was also one of the primary cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. It is also known as Severe Cyclonic Storm Aila. It was the second named tropical cyclone of the 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. 

Formation time

It formed on May 25, 2009, and dissipated on May 27, 2009.

Atmospheric condition

Wind speed

Highest winds

3-minute sustained: 110 km/h (70 mph)

1-minute sustained: 120 km/h (75 mph)

Lowest pressure

968 hPa (mbar); 28.59 inHg 

Track

On May 23, 2009, Aila formed over a disturbance over the Bay of Bengal. Then it started to intensify and organize, reaching sustained winds of 110 km/h (70 mph). Since Cyclone Sidr in November 2007, it was the worst natural disaster to affect Bangladesh. It was a relatively intense tropical cyclone that caused extensive damage in India and Bangladesh. (Reference- www.wikipedia.com)

Damage

The damage amounted to at least $1 billion (2009 USD). At least 339 deaths happened due to the storm across Bangladesh and India. Moreover, more than 1 million people were left homeless. Due to Alia, an estimated 20 million people were at risk of post-disaster diseases in Bangladesh. About 3 lac acres of cultivated land and crop losses happened. 

 

Cyclone In 2013

Cyclone Name: Cyclone Viyaru, 2013

In the history of major cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, Cyclonic Storm Viyaru is a severe cyclone among them. Operationally, it is known as Cyclonic Storm Mahasen. It was a relatively weak tropical cyclone, and it caused the loss of life across six countries in Southern and Southeastern Asia. 

Formation time 

The cyclone formed on May 10, 2013, and dissipated on May 17, 2013.

Atmospheric condition

Wind speed

Highest winds

3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

1-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

Lowest pressure

990 hPa (mbar); 29.23 inHg

 

Track

Cyclone Viyaru originated from an area of low pressure over the southern Bay of Bengal in early May 2013. According to the atmospheric conditions, it moved closer to eastern India. The exposed circulation of Viyaru turned northeastward on May 14. The cyclone attained its peak intensity early on May 16. Viyaru made landfall near Chittagong, Bangladesh, shortly. Then it moved over the eastern Indian state of Nagaland on May 17.

Damage 

Due to Viyaru, the affected areas were Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and Myanmar. It brought flooding rains of Northwestern Indonesia and caused significant damage. About four people died, and six others were reported missing. One person killed in Thailand. Striking Bangladesh in a weaker direction, the storm caused moderate to severe damage. It destroyed a total of 95,003 poorly constructed huts. About 17 people died. The number of losses to crops reached ৳2.75 billion (US$35.3 million). 

 

Cyclone In 2015

Cyclone name: Cyclone Komen

In 2015, there was one of the significant cyclones named Cyclonic Storm Komen. It was an unusual tropical cyclone. At the time of drifting over the northern Bay of Bengal, it originated near the southern coast of Bangladesh. Komen brought several heavy rainfalls to Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India. 

Formation time

Komen formed on July 26, 2015, and dissipated on August 02, 2015.

Atmospheric condition

Wind speed

Highest winds

3-minute sustained: 75 km/h (45 mph) 

1-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

Lowest pressure

986 hPa (mbar); 29.12 inHg

Track

Cyclone Komen made landfall near Chittagong with wind speeds up to 75 km/hour. Soon It formed as a depression on July 26 over the Ganges delta moving in a circular motion. Cyclone Komen intensified into a 75 km/h (45 mph) cyclonic storm. Then it moved southeastern Bangladesh ashore on July 30. The system turned westward over land and attacked India.

 

Damage

Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India were the areas affected due to the storm. It destroyed about 510,000 houses, and due to the severe cyclone, many residents lost their source of income. It also damaged 667,221 acres (270,000 ha) of crop fields. Moreover, the floods killed 132 people, and at least 39 were directly related to Komen among them.

 

Cyclone In 2016

Cyclone name: Cyclone Roanu, 2016

Roanu first formed in Sri Lanka on May 15, 2016. Then on May 21, 2016, Cyclone Roanu made landfall in Bangladesh. In the annual cyclone season, Roanu was the first tropical cyclone in 2016. It caused terrible flooding in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh in May 2016. Around 40,000 homesteads and business houses were damaged. Besides, food storage, seasonal crops were destroyed. Livestock, including fish and shrimp, firms were swept away.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Roanu, formed on May 19, 2016, and dissipated on May 23, 2016.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds – 3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

1-minute sustained: 110 km/h (70 mph)

Lowest pressure

983 hPa (mbar); 29.03 inHg 

Track:

On May 21 at midday, Roanu made landfall near Chittagong. On May 25, the storm affected more than 1.3 million people, with 26 people announced dead.

Seven coastal areas Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Bhola, Barguna, Lakshmipur, Noakhali, and Patuakhali, were severely damaged because of the storm. The highest wind speed was 3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph), 1-minute sustained: 110 km/h (70 mph). 

Damage:

Cyclone Roanu causes huge damages and losses in Bangladesh. At least seven coastal areas were affected by the cyclone. The number of damaged houses was higher than 75000. The storm broke barricades causing floods. Innumerable food storage, seasonal crops were damaged. Livestock, including fish and shrimp, firms were swept away.

The cyclone Roanu also make damage in Sri Lanka, the East coast of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Yunnan. At least 201 people died in Sri Lanka, and 26 people killed in Bangladesh because of it. The storm caused a terrible flood and damaged over 75000 houses. The damages computed to $2.03 billion.

Cyclone In 2016

Cyclone name: Cyclone Dianmu, 2016

The Dianmu cyclone first formed in Hong Kong, China, on August 15, 2016. This cyclone was named by China, which means ‘Mother of lightning’. It was first distinguished as a tropical storm by the USA. The remnants of Tropical Storm Dianmu also affected Bangladesh.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Dianmu, formed on August 15, 2016, and dissipated on August 21, 2016.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds were – 10-minute sustained: 75 km/h (45 mph)

1-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)

Lowest pressure 

980 hPa (mbar); 28.94 inHg 

Track:

Dianmu formed in Hong Kong, China. It was moving westwards under the influence of a subtropical cliff of high pressure located to the north of the system and made landfall on China’s Leizhou Peninsula. After landfall in Bangladesh, it attacked with a speed of 85 km/h per minute. The affected countries were China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India. The balances of low pressure continued to be observed, as it shifted to various parts of Myanmar and India before it was last mentioned in Bangladesh. 

Damage:

Fortunately, the Dianmu cyclone didn’t cause any damage in Bangladesh, and no deaths were reported. 

 

Cyclone In 2017

Cyclone name: Cyclone Mora, 2017

In 2017, there was a severe cyclone, Mora. It was one of the first storms in the decade. The name of wind Mora was named by Thailand, which means ‘Agate’. Severe floods and heavy rain immediately killed seven people in Bangladesh.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Mora, formed on May 28, 2017, and dissipated on May 31, 2017.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds were – 3-minute sustained: 110 km/h (70 mph)

1-minute sustained: 150 km/h (90 mph)

Lowest pressure 

978 hPa (mbar); 28.88 inHg 

Track:

The cyclone Mora originated from low pressure over the southeastern Bay of Bengal on May 28. Cyclone Mora was a tropical cyclone, and that caused severe flooding in Sri Lanka, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Northeast India in May 2017. It attacked with a wind speed of 150 km/h per minute.

Damage:

Cyclone Mora made landfall on Cox’s Bazar, a coastal district of Bangladesh, on May 30, 2017. High winds, heavy rain, and severe floods and immediately killed seven people. More than 55,000 houses were damaged, and over 3.3 million people were impacted in Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong, Bandarban, and Rangmati districts. Two weeks after the landfall, heavy rains continued to crush the country. Due to its non-stop heavy rainfall, at least 144 people died, and over 700 people were injured.

Cyclone In 2019

Cyclone name: Cyclone Fani, 2019

Fani was first located in Odisha, India. It formed from low pressure in the west of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean on April 26. After hitting in India, the Fani cyclone lost some of its power. Then Fani landfall in Bangladesh. A lot of people were forced to leave their house due to the storm. 

Formation time:

The cyclone, Fani, formed on April 26, 2019, and dissipated on May 05, 2019.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds were – 3-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)

1-minute sustained: 250 km/h (155 mph)

Lowest pressure 

932 hPa (mbar); 27.52 inHg

Track:

The Fani cyclone made landfall in Bangladesh after landfall in India. It attacked with a speed of 250 km/h per minute. The affected areas were Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, East India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka. 

Damage:

Cyclone Fani made landfall in Chittagong, Bangladesh. At least 17 people died in ten districts of Bangladesh. Fani damage about 63,000 ha (160,000 acres) of farmland in 35 regions of the country. The economy’s agricultural losses were at ৳385 million (US$4.6 million). Total damage in Bangladesh was more than ৳5.36 billion (US$63.6 million). (www.wikipedia.org

 

Cyclone In 2019

 

Cyclone name: Cyclone Bulbul, 2019

The Bulbul cyclone first made landfall in West Bengal. It made landfall at midnight. At that time, two people were already killed by the storm. The Bulbul cyclone made landfall in Chittagong, Bangladesh. All domestic flights were canceled due to the wind. A lot of people died because of lightning, thunder, and the fall of trees.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Bulbul, formed on November 05, 2019, and dissipated on November 11, 2019.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds were – 3-minute sustained: 140 km/h (85 mph)

1-minute sustained: 155 km/h (100 mph)

Lowest pressure 

976 hPa (mbar); 28.82 inHg

 

Track:

Cyclone Bulbul made landfall near West Bengal and crossed into Bangladesh. It attacked with a wind speed of 150 km/h per minute. It caused several damages to the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The affected areas were Thailand, Myanmar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Eastern India, Bangladesh. 

Damage:

The cyclone caused severe damage over coastal Bangladesh, causing deaths of 25 people. In the Khulna District, more than 9000 homes were destroyed, and over 37000 were damaged. In the Bagerhat District, more than 8000 homes were destroyed, and over 34000 were damaged. The national agriculture industry was badly damaged, with 289,006 hectares of farmland. Nearly 72,000 metric tons of crops were lost. Crops were the total value of Tk 2.63 billion. Lots of boats went missing. Innumerable people became homeless.

 

Cyclone name: Cyclone Amphan, 2020

The cyclone Amphan first formed over the Indian Ocean. Then it started to travel toward the coastal area of Bangladesh. It first attacked in India. Lots of houses were destroyed. It was the deadliest cyclone in Bangladesh after cyclone Sidr in 2007.

Formation time:

The cyclone, Amphan, formed on May 16, 2020, and dissipated on May 21, 2020.

Atmospheric condition:

Wind speed

Highest winds were – 3-minute sustained: 240 km/h (150 mph)

1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)

Lowest pressure 

925 hPa (mbar); 27.32 inHg 

Track:

Cyclone Amphan made landfall in Bangladesh’s coastal area after damaging and destroying in India. It attacked with a wind speed of 250 km/h. It caused severe damage to its capability. The affected areas were India (West Bengal, Odisha, Andaman Islands), Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Andaman. 

Damage:

Cyclone Amphan took 7 people’s lives. It destroyed thousands of houses and farming land. Lots of fishers died, and numerous boats went missing. In the Bhola district, two people were killed during the stormy weather. Many coastal areas were inundated, barricades collapsed, trees uprooted, and the impact of the cyclone severely damaged houses. 

 

rupak
 

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